[13]:44–45[14]:14[86] The nave that leads to the mihrab – which was originally the central nave of the mosque until Al-Mansur's lateral expansion of the building altered its symmetry – is slightly wider than the other naves, demonstrating a subtle hierarchy in the mosque's floor plan. The mosque is located at No.1 Street Cardenal Herrero, located in the historic center of the city of Cordoba, Spain. Hixem I also ordered the construction of galleries for prayer women in the courtyard and the first stack of ablutions. The development of the Great Mosque paralleled these new heights of splendour. Construction lasted for over two centuries and the building was eventually completed in 987, by which point Cordoba was the most important city in the Islamic Kingdom. [31], According to traditional accounts, the present-day site of the Cathedral–Mosque of Córdoba was originally a Christian church dedicated to Saint Vincent of Saragossa,[32] which was divided and shared by Christians and Muslims after the Umayyad conquest of Hispania. The evolution of the “Omeya” style in Spain is resumed in the history of the Mosque of Cordoba, as well as other styles such as the Gothic, Renaissance and Baroque of the Christian architecture. It is a master piece of architectural ingenuity having a decisive influence on the maturity of mosque architecture all over the Muslim World. [61] (The minbar has since disappeared, but it still existed in the 16th century, when it was apparently seen by Ambrosio de Morales. As part of his various construction projects, he reworked and enlarged the courtyard of the Great Mosque and built its first true minaret (a tower from which the call to prayer was issued) starting in 951-952. It was made out of precious woods like ebony, boxwood, and "scented" woods, and that it was inlaid with ivory and with other coloured woods such as red and yellow sandalwood. Among them is the part of the custody of Corpus Christi, designed by Enrique de Arfe held in the sixteenth century. Currently the minaret is inside the Christian bell tower, and although no longer can see their appearance, the drawings and by the testimony left by the relief of the spandrels of the Puerta de Santa Catalina is known. It will question if the structure referred to as the Mosque of Cordoba is a product of Islamic architecture, or if the structure precedes the Muslim occupation of Spain. As the mosque was built on a sloping site, a large amount of fill would have been necessary to create a level ground on which to build. In 929 Córdoba capital became more important in the Islamic world from the West to come to power the caliph Abd al-Rahman III. Nowadays it is no longer used as a Mosque but a Catholic Cathedral. Patricio Furriel was responsible for restoring the mihrab's Islamic mosaics, including the portions which had been lost. It is also recognized to be the most crucial monument in the Western Islamic world. The new extension covered 8600 square meters and made the mosque the largest in the Muslim world outside of Abbasid Iraq. Modern scholars believe the minbar had wheels which allowed it to be rolled in and out of its storage chamber. [14][13][16] The precedent of multi-tiered arches was also already present in the Iberian Peninsula thanks to remaining Roman aqueducts (e.g. The mihrab. The building is also mystifying due to the nature of its features whose origin is still anonymous (Brebbia & Boquera, 2017). Cordoba’s mosque-cathedral (locally known as the Mezquita) is one of the most impressive examples of Muslim architecture in the world. [72][71] Some of the upper sections of the minaret were demolished in the process. In the end wall construction, or qibla, niche, or mihrab it is located, to which the faithful direct their prayers. [72] The minaret's original appearance, however, was reconstructed by modern Spanish scholar Félix Hernández Giménez with the help archeological evidence as well as historical texts and representations. Carlos V and Bishop Manrique agreed on the need to preserve the mosque for its great architectural value. As proof of these events are still today some remains of the Visigoth basilica built in the first part of the construction of Abderramán I. In this complex you can see the extensive life and history of architecture. This maqsura area covers three bays along the southern qibla wall in front of the mihrab, and was marked off from the rest of the mosque by an elaborate screen of intersecting horseshoe and polylobed arches; a feature which would go on to be highly influential in the subsequent development of Moorish architecture. Besides cultural and political contacts with Byzantium, the great capital of the eastern caliphate multiplied. [79], The Great Mosque of Córdoba held a place of importance amongst the Islamic community of al-Andalus for centuries. A History of Architecture: Settings and Rituals, 2nd ed. But let’s rewind a little bit and tell you more about Córdoba’s great Mosque… The Mezquita (Mosque) dates back to the 10th century when Córdoba reached its zenith under a new emir, Abd ar-Rahman III who was one of the great rulers of Islamic history. The origin of the Puerta de San Esteban is unknown, although it could be between aesthetically Visigoth art and the Caliphate of Córdoba. Like the ornate decorative arches, this dome and the other ribbed domes of the maqsura were highly influential in subsequent Moorish architecture of the period, appearing also in simpler but imaginative forms in the small Bab al-Mardum Mosque in Toledo and giving rise to other ornamental derivations like the much later stucco domes of the Great Mosque of Tlemcen and the Great Mosque of Taza. The horseshoe arch. All this gives the whole similar to the Byzantine, where the variety of colors is characteristic style. [16][13] The minaret was 47 meters high and had a square base measuring 8.5 meters per side. Ettinghausen, Richard, and Oleg Grabar. In this early period, many Muslims in the region preferred a tradition that existed in the western Islamic world (the Maghreb and al-Andalus) according to which the qibla should be oriented towards the south instead of pointing towards the shortest distance to Mecca. It is also recognized to be the most crucial monument in the Western Islamic world. The successor of Abderramán I, his son Hisham I, added his first mosque minaret quadrangular. They consist of a lower tier of horseshoe arches and an upper tier of semi-circular arches. [34][36] In return, Abd al-Rahman also allowed the Christians to rebuild other ruined churches – including churches dedicated to the Christian martyrs Saints Faustus, Januarius, and Marcellus whom they deeply revered[37] – as agreed upon in the sale terms. Also referred to as the Great Mosque of Cordoba and the Mezquita Cordoba, the structure of the building is known to be one of the most accomplished monuments of the Moorish architecture. [14] When Charles V later saw the result of the construction he is reputed to have been displeased, however, and famously commented: "You have destroyed something unique to build something commonplace. [67] The first two architects introduced Gothic elements into the design which are visible in the elaborate tracery design of the stone vaults over the transept arms and above the altar. Martin Frishman, Hasan Uddin … In this complex you can see the extensive life and history of architecture. These pieces were placed at different heights as reference was made constructive rather roofline of the terrain. [72][71] In 1727 the tower was damaged by another storm and in 1755 pieces of it (mainly decorative details) were damaged by the 1755 Lisbon Earthquake. Also noteworthy are the ornamental plaster work, especially in the mihrab. The cathedral hired architect Gaspar de la Peña to fix the problems. There is also beveled tiles. Sort by: Top Voted. The hall was extended 45 meters to the south by adding 12 more bays (arches), again repeating the double-tiered arches of the original design. Hernán Ruiz II carried out the project, demolishing part of the old minaret and built the bell tower. The Great Mosque of Cordoba vs. Hagia Sophia Religion has played a huge role in the history of the world of architecture. The most characteristic feature of his image is the combination of two materials, stone and brick. [17] Further restoration works concentrating on the former mosque structure were carried out between 1879 and 1923 under the direction of Velázquez Bosco, who among other things dismantled the baroque elements that had been added to the Villaviciosa Chapel and uncovered the earlier structures there. [72] It was designed by architect Hernan Ruiz III (grandson of Hernan Ruiz I), who built the tower up to the bells level but died before its completion. See location on Google Maps [52][51] Although later mosques in Al-Andalus did have more eastern-facing orientations (e.g. [15], The mosque-cathedral's hypostyle hall dates from the original mosque construction and originally served as its main prayer space for Muslims. The courtyard has changed and expanded with the various reforms and extensions of the mosque. The architecture of the magnificent mosque echoed that of another structure – the mosque of Umayyad dynasty built in Damascus when it had ruled the Muslim empire. [40][41] According to Susana Calvo Capilla, a specialist on the history of the mosque–cathedral, although remains of multiple church-like buildings have been located on the territory of the mosque–cathedral complex, no clear archaeological evidence has been found of where either the church of St. Vincent or the first mosque were located on the site, and the latter may have been a newly constructed building. One of the most memorable and influential buildings of Islamic Spain was the Great Mosque of Cordoba, built between the 8 th and 10 th centuries, and in its time considered a wonder of the world by both Muslims and Christians. The two aisles on the side contain four more canvases depicting four martyrs: Saint Acisclus and Saint Victoria on the bottom halves and Saint Pelagius and Saint Flora in the upper halves. [17] During this period, in 1882, the cathedral and mosque structure was declared a National Monument. Mosque Córdoba is the most important example of Islamic architecture in the West. The Great Mosque of Cordoba. The horseshoe arch was actually a feature of earlier Visigothic church architecture (sse example in San Juan de Baños); it was the Great Mosque of Córdoba that gave it wide currency, to such an extent that it has now become synonymous with Islamic architecture. History of Medieval Arabic and Western European domes, "Web Oficial del Conjunto Monumental Mezquita-Catedral de Córdoba", "History of the Mosque Cathedral of Cordoba", "The history | Web Oficial - Mezquita-Catedral de Córdoba", "The Great Mosque of Córdoba in the Twelfth and Thirteenth Centuries", "A Brief History of the Mosque-Cathedral of Córdoba", "Cordoba's Hymn to Islam (Published 1989)", "The Reconquista of the Mosque of Córdoba", "Las primeras mezquitas de al-Andalus a través de las fuentes árabes", "Córdoba's Mosque-Cathedral dispute puts Spanish identity at centre stage", "Patio de los Naranjos | Web Oficial - Mezquita-Catedral de Córdoba", "Villaviciosa Chapel | Web Oficial - Mezquita-Catedral de Córdoba", "Capilla de Nuestra Señora de la Concepción", "Royal Chapel | Web Oficial - Mezquita-Catedral de Córdoba", "Main Chapel, Transept and Choir | Web Oficial - Mezquita-Catedral de Córdoba", "Los Hernán Ruiz, saga de arquitectos: Hernán Ruiz I, el Viejo", "Bell Tower | Web Oficial - Mezquita-Catedral de Córdoba", "Belfry Tower of the Mosque-Cathedral of Córdoba", "Main Altarpiece | Web Oficial - Mezquita-Catedral de Córdoba", "Choir stalls | Web Oficial - Mezquita-Catedral de Córdoba", "Choir stalls of the Mosque-Cathedral Córdoba", "Conservation | Web Oficial - Mezquita-Catedral de Córdoba", "Courtyard of the Orange trees of Viana Palace, Córdoba", "Main Altar of the Mosque-Cathedral of Córdoba", "Pope asked to let Muslims pray in cathedral", "Córdoba controversy: Historic Mosque-Cathedral mired in cultural dispute", "Córdoba rejects Catholic church's claim to own mosque-cathedral", "Spanish Church accuses Qatar of meddling in bitter fight over Mosque-Cathedral of Cordoba", "Patrimonio cultural en disputa: la Mezquita-Catedral de Córdoba", Mezquita (Great Mosque) of Córdoba at Google Maps, The Mosque of Cordova (during early 19th century), The Great Mosque of Cordoba in the tenth century, General information about the mosque and opening hours, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Mosque–Cathedral_of_Córdoba&oldid=996194141, Buildings and structures in Córdoba, Spain, Roman Catholic churches in Córdoba, Spain, Conversion of non-Christian religious buildings and structures into churches, Bien de Interés Cultural landmarks in the Province of Córdoba (Spain), Religious buildings and structures converted into mosques, Buildings converted to Catholic church buildings, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing Spanish-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2020, Official website different in Wikidata and Wikipedia, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, 16th century (last major addition as cathedral), Capilla de Nuestra Señora de las Nieves y San Vicente Mártir, Capilla de los Santos Simón y Judas de la Mezquita-Catedral de Córdoba, Capilla de la Concepción de Salizanes o del Santísimo Sacramento, Capilla de San Marcos, Santa Ana y San Juan Bautista, Capilla de San Mateo y Limpia Concepción de Nuestra Señora, Capilla de Santa Marina, de San Matías y del Baptisterio, Capilla de la Natividad de Nuestra Señora, Capilla de Nuestra Señora del Mayor Dolor, Capilla de las Benditas Ánimas del Purgatorio, Capilla de Santa Francisca Romana y Santa Úrsula, This page was last edited on 25 December 2020, at 02:01. It will question if the structure referred to as the Mosque of Cordoba is a product of Islamic architecture, or if the structure precedes the Muslim occupation of Spain. The poverty of the materials of this extension denotes the next fall of the caliphate. The Great Mosque of Córdoba (La Mezquita) is one of Islam’s finest legacies in Spain. [61]:121, The first major addition to the building under Christian patrons is the Royal Chapel (Capilla Real), located directly behind the west wall of the Villaviciosa Chapel. [16] The famous alternating red and white voussoirs of the arches were inspired by those in the Dome of the Rock[82] and also resemble those of the Aachen Cathedral, which were built almost at the same time. [76][77][16]:272–278, The Mosque-Cathedral was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1984, and in 1994 this status was extended to the entire historic centre of Cordoba. This passage allowed the ruler thenceforth to enter the mosque privately, where he would remain unseen behind the screen of the maqsura, thus separating him from the general public during prayer. Another important artistic value is the Treasury. Today the Mezquita de Cordoba (Cordoba Mosque) as it is comonly known (or the Cordoba Cathedralas it was kn… [16]:62[13]:71, Abd ar Rahman III's son and successor, Al-Hakam II, was a cultured man who was involved in his father's architectural projects. Medieval period. Mosque of cordoba suzain ali. [62], In 1146 the Christian army of King Alfonso Vll of Léon and Castile briefly occupied Cordoba. Due to the location and nearby mosque river, Almanzor decided to expand eastward, adding eight more ships in that direction. The Mosque–Cathedral of Córdoba, also known as the Great Mosque of Córdoba and the Mezquita. La Mezquita de Córdoba (the Great Mosque of Córdoba) is a prime example of Moorish architecture at it’s best. Temple/Church/Mosque/Church. [7] [8] The structure is regarded as one of the most accomplished monuments of Moorish architecture built by the European Moors. Chapel of San Eulogio, also called Chapel of San Miguel, Chapel of Our Lady of Suffering, also called Chapel of St. Mary Magdalene, Chapel of the Epiphany, also called Chapel of the Magi, Chapel of the Holy Souls in Purgatory, also called chapel of Inca Garcilaso, Chapel of the Holy Men, also called Chapel of the Holy Sepulchre, Chapel of St. Frances of Rome and St. Ursula. [96] Left-wing political parties have claimed that the Catholic Church does not own the building, and that it should be state property. Further research work and archaeological excavations were carried out on the mosque structure and in the Courtyard of the Oranges by Félix Hernández between 1931 and 1936. Excavation indicates the trees were planted in a pattern, with surface irrigation channels. The Great Mosque of Córdoba (commonly referred to as La Mezquita) is one of the jewels of Islamic civilisation. [17] Further restorations of features like chapels and some of the outer gates have continued to take place up to the late 2010s. [57], Abd al-Rahman III added the mosque's first minaret (tower used by the muezzin for the call to prayer) in the mid-10th century. Some of them were kept on payroll by the church but many of them worked as part of their fulfilment of a "labor tax" on Muslim craftsmen (later extended to Muslims of all professions) which required them to work two days a year on the cathedral building. [12]:136 This sharing arrangement of the site lasted until 785, when the Christian half was purchased by Abd al-Rahman I, who then proceeded to demolish[10][12] the church structure and build the grand mosque of Córdoba on its site. "Mezquita" redirects here. [13] Syrian (Umayyad), Visigothic, and Roman influences have been noted in the building's design, but the architect is not known. The buildings on this site are as complex as the extraordinarily rich history they illustrate. [13]:43 Above this alfiz is another decorative blind arcade of polylobed arches. We can get a deeper look in the minds and attitudes of people when we look at their beliefs – specifically their religion. The altarpiece, finished in the seventeenth century, is marble. An interestin… Those in the voussoirs and the blind arcade form vegetal and floral motifs, while those in the alfiz and in smaller bands at the springs of the arch contain Arabic inscriptions in Kufic script. What it is known is that it took its final shape under the leadership of Mohamed I. Al-Mundhir up the treasury, from which its final location is unknown. The original paintings of the altar were executed by Cristóbal Vela Cobo but they were replaced in 1715 by the current paintings by Antonio Palomino. The lantern tower was in turn surmounted by a dome and topped by a finial in the shape of a metal rod with two golden spheres and one silver sphere (often referred to as "apples") decreasing in size towards the top. Because we share the belief that architectural components must by definition behave logically, their conversion into agents of chaos fuels a basic subversion of our expectations concerning the nature of architecture. The Mosque–Cathedral of Córdoba : also known as the Great Mosque of Córdoba and the Mezquita, whose ecclesiastical name is the Cathedral of Our Lady of the Assumption (Spanish: Catedral de Nuestra Señora de la Asunción), is the Catholic cathedral of the Diocese of Córdoba dedicated to the Assumption of the Virgin Mary and located in the Spanish region of Andalusia. The most important development to the north, there was at the time of Abd al-Rahman III, taking down the minaret of Hisham I, and lateral extension of Mansur. [13][14][16] At the beginning of al-Hakam's extension, the central "nave" of the mosque was highlighted with an elaborate ribbed dome (now part of the Capilla da Villaviciosa). This triplet of windows was repeated on the level above, and above this – just below the summit of the main shaft – was a row of nine smaller windows of equivalent shape and decoration. The Great Mosque of Kairouan, Tunisia, is an archetypal example of the hypostyle mosque. Kostof, Spiro. Their use in the Great Mosque of Cordoba manages to create a stunningly original visual composition even as it emphasises 'Abd al-Rahman's connection to the established Umayyad tradition. [14] His son Abdallah (ruled 888-912) built the mosque's first elevated passage, known as a sabat, which connected the mosque directly with the Umayyad palace across the street. Inside the mosque are both Moorish arches and semicircular and lobed. Abd ar-Rahman was a fugitive and one of the last remaining members of the Umayyad royal family which had previously ruled the first hereditary caliphate based in Damascus, Syria. GREAT MOSQUE of Cordoba Why visit the Great Mosque? During his own reign, starting in 961, he further expanded the mosque's prayer hall. At the time, Mudéjar craftsmen and carpenters were especially valued across the region and even held monopolies in some Castilian cities such as Burgos. The Great Umayyad Mosque remains one of the great symbols of the glorious period of Muslim civilisation and its pride. The Cathedral within the Mosque of Cordoba is located in the historic center of the city and shows a mixture of different architectural styles, as it was built and modified over nine centuries. [16]:74, Scholars have affirmed that the style of the mosaics in this part of the mosque is heavily influenced by Byzantine mosaics, which corroborates historical accounts of the Caliph requesting expert mosaicists from the Byzantine emperor at the time, who agreed and sent him a master craftsman. [59]:50[60], The mosque's last significant expansion under Muslim rule was ordered by Al-Mansur (Almanzor), the autocratic vizier of Caliph Hisham II, in 987-988. The tensions that grow from these subverted expectations create an intellectual dialogue between building and viewer that will characterize the evolving design of the Great Mosque of Cordoba for over two hundred years. Nov 8, 2020 - Explore Kimberly Prestwich's board "Islamic Architecture" on Pinterest. At Córdoba the earliest section of the Great Mosque was built in 785–786. Spanish translation in the journal Antípoda:Revista de Antropología y Arqueología (Bogotá, Colombia) 12 (2011): 19–38. London and New York: Penguin, 1987. This expansion marked the final depth of the mosque, leaving as we see today. Today has measures 130 meters long and 50 meters wide. The final element was the construction of the elliptical central dome of the transept, built between 1599 and 1607. The inner area is divided into five parts, each corresponding to the successive enlargements that the mosque has had throughout its history. It served as a central prayer hall for personal devotion, for the five daily Muslim prayers and the special Friday prayers accompanied by a sermon. This part also is the prayer room or haram. [15] While it is sometimes believed to have been started by Alfonso X, Heather Ecker has argued that documentary evidence proves it wasn't begun before the 14th century when Contanza of Portugal, wife of Ferdinand IV, made an endowment for the chapel. 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